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Without this characteristic gamma ray, it would be impossible to detect and identify the decay of potassium 40.The neutrinos emitted in these captures defy detection.The beta electrons of the decay into calcium 40 (89.3% of the time) are not accompanied by gamma rays, and are generally absorbed into the medium they find themselves in.IN2P3Stable nuclei sit at the bottom of a so-called ‘valley of stability’, a concept that helps determine whether a nucleus is radioactive or not.The beta electrons leading to calcium, however, are not accompanied by gamma rays, have no characteristic energies and rarely make it out of the rocks or bodies that contain potassium 40.Beta-minus decay indicates a nucleus with too many neutrons, electron capture a nucleus with too many protons.Argon 40, a gas held prisoner by lava The potassium-argon method is frequently used to date lava flows whose age is between a million and a billion years.When an atom of potassium 40 decays into argon 40, the argon atom produced is trapped by the crystalline structure of the lava.

With time and the potassium 40 disintegrations, the gaseous argon atoms accumulate very slowly in the lava where they are trapped.

Measuring the amount of argon 40 formed since the solidification of the lava allows for an accurate measure of the rock age.

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Join Britannica's Publishing Partner Program and our community of experts to gain a global audience for your work! This dating method is based upon the decay of radioactive potassium-40 to radioactive argon-40 in minerals and rocks; potassium-40 also decays to calcium-40.

Thus, the ratio of argon-40 and potassium-40 and radiogenic calcium-40 to potassium-40 in a mineral or rock is a measure of the age of the sample.

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