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mostly spent in fencing in a number of five-acre plots on each of the two mountains. This was used in the purchase and transportation of nursery stock, for labor, and for the enclosure of an additional plot on Mauna Kea. Where it reaches its greatest height it sometimes exceeds 100 feet. the natives for making their tapa, or paper cloth, was extensively the Urticaccac, the (Neraudia uiclastomacfolia), and , Wauke It is only found at the settlement of cultivated in former days. few adaptive characteristics of the plant covering of this A hot and dry district be mentioned before this paragraph is prevailing type of wood is of a hard, closegrained texture, such as that of Mezoneurum Kauaiense, Colubrina oppositifolia, and Acacia Koaia, the latter being found on the dry slopes of Puuanahulu also Maba sandwicensis, Plec- may The dismissed. It appears that in this dry, rocky region the tendency for trees and shrubs of slow growth is to form harder and finer wood than those of rapid growth. The hill greatest variety of trees and shrubs called Puuwaawaa, and rising at an in its vicinity. The liability of fire is always present unless there is a watchful and efficient forest fire service ready and able to take prompt action when ever necessary. -ecnrod, especially during lhr past throo or four years, whore* fires had beoii allowed to oscape through preventable carelessness. In and for that portion of the District of Kona, extending to Palolo Valley. On the contrary, located as the islands are, and with a climate favorable to rapid growth, Hawaii, in course of time, should be nitely on the rest of the able to export to the United States an ever-increasing supply of hardwood. The amount allotted by the Forest Service for this project was This was ,000.00 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1909. lava as well as in black, muddy soil, at 4000 to 5000 feet, in company with Acacia Koa. 73 Of Mamake (Pipturns albidus) Maoloa (Brousonettia papy The Wauke, which w&s used by rifera) are here represented. The fires on Kauai were in the woods back of Kilauea. But while fortunate during in escaping much damage from forest fire by no means immune from this period, the Territory is forest fire danger. This skeleton organization has been effective in combatting all fires that have occurred, and furthermore lias gone a long way toward firmly fixing in the minds of the people generally that the Board of Agriculture and Forestry meant business in its enforcement of tho A number of convictions have boon terms of the forest fire la\v. In and In and for Manoa Valley, District for Palolo Valley, District of C. Neither can it depend to any large extent on foreign countries. It is work, too, that must be managed by technically trained men, for there is always the possibility that some plants may be introduced which it is not wise to permit to grow here, Therefore the experimental introduction of exotic trees and shrubs is one of the important investigations that lies before the Division of Forestry. In the latter place the writer found one single tree of this species still bearing fruits, but almost dead. Were there other experimental tracts like this one, 75 distributed throughout the Territory, much more rapid advance than at present would result in securing definite, practical data as to the value for one and another purpose of newly introduced trees. In co-operation with and at the expense of the Alexander & Baldwin Interests, experimental planting of certain introduced trees was undertaken in the summer of 1911 in a section of the forest bordering the irrigation ditches in the Koolau District on the Island of Maui. In the interest of forest extension, the Forest Service of the United States Department of Agriculture has for several years now made an allotment for experimental forest planting in Ha In the beginning all the money was used for the trial of waii. had germinated and Seedlings of the following species were lound, among others, to have germinated and apparently to have started to grow in a number of the plots, both on Maui and on Hawaii Finns coulteri. are technical in character the effort is alwavs them in terms that anyone can understand. In further effort to bring a knowledge of the reasons for forest to the people of the islands, public addresses are made occasionally by the Superintendent of Forestry before various In December 1911 a paper of this sort was read organizations. 61 In this campaign much has been written and printed, in regular reports, in the "Hawaiian Forester and Agriculturist," and elsewhere, both as argument and exhortation, and also in the way concrete examples showing the profit to be derived from tree planting in terms of compound interest. This report gives the result of a cooperative study made by the Division of Forestry and the U. In 1912, the last year for which full records are at hand, the number planted was well over a million and a quarter trees. From Algeria he went straightway via Italy to Berlin where he spent most of his time at the Royal Botanical Museum working up the Hillebrand collection, making drawings of the types, etc. more than 10 to 12 inches in diameter or more than 50 feet in height, and the clear merchantable length of such trees is too dozen or more small to be of any practical use for lumber. Unless, however plant introduction is carried on carefully and in a highly systematic way much of it goes for nothing. One of the most interesting and rare trees is Gossypium drythe native brown cotton, "Kokio" (see plate 13), "The Hillebrand in his "Flora of the Hawaiian Islands," says species was imperfectly described by Seeman from a specimen narioides, : 72 museum, collected by Nelson, the companion of Captain Cook." North Kona, Hawaii, is a new locality, as the species had only been recorded from the western end of Molokai. "The Papapaholahola Spring Reserve is becoming quite a show place, owing to the good work being done by the two men allowed by your Department and if the work is continued along the same lines as at present undertaken, the Government will have a Forest Reserve of which they can well feel proud." we have From a personal inspection of this tract made in the summer am inclined to speak with enthusiasm of the good prog- of 1912, I ress made. No very large returns were expected but as the cost of sowing the seed was very little, it was felt that the effort was justifiable- Experiments of this sort should be continued, for if one or two species of conifers can be found that will grow on the upper slopes of these mountains it will mean much to the Territory. It It is a part of the policy of the Board so to issue them, for the desire with forest work, as with all other activities of the Board, is to give the work being carried on such publicity that everyone who is interested in, or concerned by it can be fully informed as While necessarily some of these reports to what is going on. The only other publication of the Division of Forestry, issued during the past two years, outside of contributions to the Forester and Agriculturist, was the Biennial report for 1909-1910, which appeared on March n, 1911. The doctrine of using; for tree planting non-agricultural land on the sugar plantations that otherwise would be closed as waste area has been persistently preached, until it is now s^enerallv acknowledged to be a sound poliev to follow wherever it is possible to secure funds to defray the initial cost. That the efforts put forth have really told is evidenced by the increase in the number of trees planted each year. and for that portion of the District of main government road. Ewa lying to the west of 65 In and for that portion of the District of Ewa, lying between the lands of Moanalua and Waiawa. After .journeying through Algeria and collecting in the Atlas mountains, especially near El Karitara, the writer visited the famous oasis Biskra, with its wonderful date palm gardens, journeying south to the great oasis of Tuggurt in the land of the dunes. Although the the Islands have an extremely rich and varied flora, there are few Few native trees average native trees of commercial value.

But there are many places where these trees do not do well non-productive areas that ought to be in forest, for which other trees must be found. (Limu) in the upper row and the native ferns in the lower. rosaceous shrub (Osteomelcs anthyl On the more exposed places Reylidifolia), Ulei, grew nearby. Of this experimental plantation, known locally as the "Papapaholahola Reserve," the agent in charge, Mr. Mc Bryde, has the following to say "The Reserve covers 39% acres, the whole of it being fenced in. Forest Service for experimental planting in Hawaii was 0 for the fiscal period ending For the present year it is 0. part of the money for this year and last has been expended for the wages of laborers used in planting out and caring for the Eucalyptus in the Nuuanu Valley Plantation. In addition to the lines of work which comprise the main acthe Division uf Forestry, no inconsiderable amount oi energy is expended in efforts, not always easy to classify, which are designed in one way or another to benefit the people of the tivities of Territory. Under the heading publicity mlight be mentioned the written reports which are made to the Commissioners on all importam matters. The general attitude of the public in regard to the protection of the forest has undergone a marked change in the past decade. and for that portion of the Island of Molokai lying Wailau Valley and the land of Mapulehu. Shortly after arrival at Colombo he proceeded to Kandy, the old Singhalese capital, spending most of his time in the famous botanic gardens at Peradenya, collecting seeds. No complete statistics on this subject are available, but the following figures may be considered as quite conservative.

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rport of the Division of Forestry, for the Biennial Period Ending Dec. Margol in By Louis Fer^s^ij^[email protected]~^~tr. When it does come out, it should be of very considerable interest and real value to all tree planters in Hawaii, because it contains just the information needed by persons desiring to establish forest plantations. Without exact knowlis 42 edge concerning the habits of the trees and other plants found therein, plans for the proper care of the forest can not be as wisely made as when these data are available. Rock deal in many cases with questions of pure science, but they all have their practical bearing in one or another. It can only be assumed that the region in question had never been visited by any collector or botanist. Besides, each time a grass or brush fire has to be fought, it means just so much expense and loss of time for those who turn out. Fuel supply in certain districts, fence posts, railroad ties, bridge timbers and other lumber for rough work, to say nothing of con With the. and for the portion of the Districts of Koolau and Puna, extending from the land of Anahola to the land of Olohena,, inclusive. In and for that portion of the District of Kona, lying between and 64 including the Waimea, Poomau and Kauaikanana Valleys and the Hanapepe Valley on the east. their own lumber supply before the timber scarcity comes, provided immediate planting is done on a commercial scale. The introduction of exotic plants received especial impetus in 1881, as a result of a tour of the world by King Kalakaua, who sent back to the islands seed and cuttings of many important plants, some of which may now be found growing on almost every island in the group.

These plants are now being propagated at the Nursery and the Makiki Station. is Colubrina oppositifolia, whose wood relative Alphitonia ponderosa, the Kauila from Kauai, in being harder grained and in possessing a deeper red color. In April and May, 1911, an arrangement was made whereby Mr. On the windward side of the plants a double line of Swamp Mahogany (Eucalyptus robusta) was set out, as a windbreak. There are increasing calls for a popular bulletin descriptive It is hoped of the common introduced trees planted in Honolulu. The collection was transferred to the College building in Manoa Valley in the summer of 1912. On each of these expeditions he collected much new herbarium material which was added to the collection. That o^ proved by the steady stream of applicato the Division. GRAVES, Forester EUCALYPTUS CULTURE IN HAWAII By LOUIS MARGOLIN Forest Examiner, Forest Service United States Department of Agriculture HONOLULU: HAWAIIAN GAZETTE CO,, LTD. I have the honor to transmit herewith a manu"Eucalyptus Culture in Hawaii," by Mr. Frontispiece 1 Prospect Hill Grove, Ulupalakua, Maui Fig. The timber supply of the continental United States at the present rate of consumption can not last for a long time.

The Territory has been fortunate in receiving at the hands of Mr. Wilder, a former member of the Board of Commissioners of Agriculture and Forestry, seeds of a great variety of trees and shrubs, which he has secured during an extended tour around the world. The species is of striking beauty when in blossom and deserves to be taller cultivated. Experimental lots of a number of species of trees new to Hawaii are being planted to ascertain if among them are not kinds adapted for use under the conditions obtaining in this particular section, while other experiments are in progress to determine the best methods of propagating on an extensive scale, certain of the native members of the plant Hawaiian forest plants that are valuable as community that makes up the water-bearing forest. Curran of the Philippine Bureau of Forestry visited Maui to confer with those locally interested, in their efforts to de- ways and means of handling this forest to the best advantage. Curran's recommendations was published in the Hawaiian Forester and Agriculturist, June, vise 1911; Vol. Some additional planting and filling up of the blocks 76 quota of trees was done in 1912. corynocalyx crebnct ' gomphocephala goniocalyx leucoxylon E. This paper contains a list of trees suitable for use locally for this purpose, with brief notes in regard to each species. tinues, however, as an honorary officer of the Board with the title "Consulting Botanist." Under a carefully worded agreement, the herbarium of the Board of Agriculture and Forestry, with the cases in which it is housed, has been loaned to the College of Hawaii. Rock made collecting trips to Hawaii and Maui and that sumimer again visited the Kau District on Hawaii. David Haughs, who has charge of the section of the Division's work in dealing with the growing and distribution of trees. Haughs' suggestions on all matters relating to tree growing are distinctly worth having. This, with the co-types from the Asa Gray collection, generously given by the Gray Herbarium, Cambridge, Massachusetts, makes the Herbarium of your Board, now in the safe keeping of the College of Hawaii, the most complete and valuable collection of Hawaiian plants in the world. HOSMER, Superintendent In Cooperation with the FOREST SERVICE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HENRY S. of Commissioners of Agriculture and Forestry Honolulu, Hawaii. forests is to conserve the water supply and regulate the stream A ; flow, in a and their importance as a source of timber supply, except few restricted districts, is entirely negligible.

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  1. It was the most horrifying job I’ve ever done, partly because of the deranged people I worked with, and mostly due to the insane stats I saw behind the scenes.